Stachyose is a kind of functional oligosaccharide with clear structure, clear function and stable properties. It cannot be digested and absorbed by the human body. It has good applications in the fields of food, health care products, medicines, pesticides, feed, rubber industry, etc. . In October 2010, the Ministry of Health document No. 17 approved the production and operation of stachyose as a common food. The application of stachyose to food, nutrition and health care will be a hot spot in the development of stachyose.

On January 18, 2007, the National Center for Public Nutrition Improvement Projects launched the OLIGO project, which aims to prevent various diseases caused by nutritional imbalances through convenient and effective nutritional supplements, thereby improving the public’s nutritional status. At present, there are more than 20 kinds of OLIGO oligosaccharides, mainly including lacto-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, stachyose, isomalt-oligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides, raffinose and so on. In terms of promoting the human micro-ecological balance, stachyose has been proven to be the most efficient proliferation factor of bifidobacteria and is known as the “super bifido factor”.

2. The properties of stachyose

2.1. Physical and chemical properties

Stachyose is a tetrasaccharide composed of 1 molecule of α-glucose, 1 molecule of β-fructose and 2 molecules of α-galactose. The molecular formula is C24H42O21 and the molecular weight is 666.59. The molecular structure is as shown in the figure below. Crystalline stachyose contains 4 molecules of water. Of tiny crystals. The solubility in water is 130 g/100 ML (20°C), and it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ether and ethanol; the sweetness is low, about 28.3% of that of sucrose; the melting point is 101°C, and it loses water at 115°C in vacuum.

The melting point of anhydrous is 167℃~170℃. Moisture retention and hygroscopicity are less than sucrose; there is no reduction [1].

2.2. Biological properties

• Low energy: Stachyose cannot be digested and absorbed by animals and provides very low energy. According to experiments by Zheng Nianxin and others, the absorption of stachyose in male rats is very small, only 3.82% [2], which cannot provide nutrition to the body. According to the structure of stachyose, stachyose is an α-galactoside oligosaccharide. The α-galactoside bond is not hydrolyzed by human digestive tract enzymes, so stachyose cannot be digested and absorbed by the human body, so it can hardly be absorbed. Provide the energy needed by the human body.

• It has a specific proliferation effect on beneficial intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus [3]. It is reported that 0.5~3 grams of stachyose per day is effective [4], which is far lower than the effective amount of isomaltose, 20 grams, and the effective amount of galacto-oligosaccharide, 8-10 grams. Soy oligosaccharides are effective. The amount is 10 grams, and the effective amount of oligofructose is 30 grams.

• Has anti-caries function. Stachyose is not used by oral streptococci that cause dental caries, and regular consumption will not cause dental caries.

• Stachyose has a specific regulatory effect on the functions of a variety of cells in humans and animals, which is also the basis for exploring its potential pharmaceutical effects and other applications.

3. The health function of stachyose

Stachyose has a variety of health care effects on the human body. After the human body consumes stachyose, due to the lack of α-D-galactosidase in the digestive tract, stachyose is not digested and absorbed and directly reaches the colon and is beneficial for bifidobacteria. Utilized by bacteria. Stachyose rapidly multiplies bifidobacteria and establishes a dominant position in the digestive tract: Bifidobacteria metabolism can produce acetic acid and lactic acid, lower intestinal pH, balance the intestinal flora, produce antibacterial substances and free bile acids, and improve digestion The internal environment of the tract achieves a good intestinal health care effect; it has a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of saprophytic bacteria, which can reduce cholesterol, prevent cancer, and fight cancer; at the same time, the metabolism of bifidobacteria can not only produce a variety of vitamins, but also inhibit certain These vitamin-decomposing bacteria ensure the supply of vitamins in the body and improve the metabolism of vitamins in the body; they can also stimulate the intestinal tract to produce immune cells and improve the body’s immune function.

3.1. Regulate intestinal flora and improve intestinal diseases

Stachyose can multiply bifidobacteria 40 times faster after entering the colon [5]; stachyose can improve gastrointestinal function through dual effects (as soluble dietary fiber and proliferate bifidobacteria), and can effectively improve constipation, Diarrhea, colitis and other symptoms, recovery of the intestinal tract after surgery and supplementation of stachyose for people who take antibiotics for a long time can help the recovery of probiotics and correct the imbalance of intestinal flora.

3.2. Adjuvant treatment of liver disease, chemical liver injury, and has a hangover function

Stachyose can accelerate the excretion of toxic metabolites in the intestine and reduce the process of reabsorption of toxic metabolites into the blood and biotransformation by the liver. Experiments have confirmed that stachyose can reduce the absorption of ammonia in the intestinal Clinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE/SHE) has a certain preventive effect [6]. Stachyose has a certain effect on restoring the function of the liver, it can alleviate the stimulation of alcohol on the liver, and it also has a certain effect on the function recovery of various organs in the body after drinking.

3.3. Assist in lowering blood fat and losing weight

Stachyose has a significant alleviating effect on hyperlipidemia. According to reports, the reduction of beneficial bacteria in the intestine will eventually lead to an increase in the synthesis and absorption of cholesterol. Animal experiments have confirmed that bifidobacteria can directly affect the activity of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl CoA reductase [7], inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol, thereby reducing serum cholesterol. In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus can also absorb cholesterol and inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the intestinal wall. Niacin produced by the metabolism of bifidobacteria is also related to the reduction of blood cholesterol [8].

3.4. Enhance immunity

As a prebiotic, stachyose can obviously stimulate peritoneal macrophages and increase their phagocytic ability. Experiments have found that stachyose can enhance the formation rate of mouse red blood cell receptors and red blood cell immune complexes, and pass through the lymph on the red blood cell membrane. The cell function-related antigen interacts with the cell, which eventually leads to the secretion of interferon and other cytokines, and enhances the activity of the cell. At the same time, stachyose itself can also decompose a variety of immune-promoting factors such as mannotriose, melibiose, etc. These substances can improve the body’s immune ability, help fight diseases, and restore normal intestinal function.

3.5. Anti-oxidation (delay aging), improve menopausal syndrome

Experiments have confirmed that intestinal flora is closely related to health and longevity. After ingesting stachyose in the elderly, the intestinal spoilage indicators (β-glucuronidase activity and ammonia content) are significantly reduced, and the fermentation products of spoilage bacteria (indole and p-methylphenol content) are also significant Decrease [9].

Menopausal syndrome is not only related to hormone levels, but also closely related to “intestinal age”. Maintaining good intestinal function and the ability of the intestine to absorb calcium will not slow down, which can prevent osteoporosis, which is closely related to menopause. The immunoregulatory factors after the decomposition of stachyose can improve the body’s immunity and also have a good effect on alleviating the symptoms of menopause.

3.6. Assist in lowering blood pressure

Human experiments have shown that patients with hypertension consume 10 grams of stachyose per day, and after 6 weeks, their diastolic blood pressure is reduced by 799.7 Pa (about 6 mmHg) on ​​average. Other experiments have shown that there is a significant negative correlation between the level of human diastolic blood pressure and the ratio of the number of bifidobacteria in the feces to the total number of bacteria [8], that is, the ratio of the number of bifidobacteria in the feces to the total number of bacteria is high, then the diastolic The lower the pressure.

3.7. Increase the body’s absorption of mineral elements and promote lead discharge

Experiments have shown that feeding mice with stachyose for 20 days found that the content of mineral elements such as calcium and iron in the body has increased, and the mineral elements in the ash of the thigh bone have also increased correspondingly. Experiments have also shown that stachyose can increase the body’s absorption of mineral elements, and its mechanism may be related to the increase of L-lactic acid in the cecum.

Stachyose has an excellent laxative effect, which can greatly reduce the residence time of food residues in the intestine and reduce the chance of lead being absorbed in the intestine. After the lead is discharged through the digestive tract, the accumulation of lead in the body is reduced, which causes a decrease in urine lead. At the same time, it can combine with the lead secreted by bile into the intestine, blocking its reabsorption. Bile lead is 40 to 100 times higher than blood lead. This part of lead is excreted by stachyose. At the same time, stachyose can adjust the intestinal flora, lower the pH of the intestine, and promote the absorption of calcium, iron and other elements. Competitively inhibit the absorption of lead.

3.8. Supplement water-soluble vitamins, relieve diabetes and its complications

The beneficial bacteria represented by bifidobacteria in the intestine can synthesize a series of vitamins such as VB1, VB2, VB6, and VB12. At the same time, beneficial bacteria can also ensure the supply of vitamins by inhibiting certain bacteria that decompose vitamins. For example, some bacillus can decompose VB1 and cause VB1 deficiency, but these bacillus are often inhibited by beneficial bacteria. Therefore, supplementing stachyose can promote the production and reproduction of beneficial bacteria and synthesize more water-soluble vitamins.

Under the action of stachyose, bifidobacteria synthesize various water-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin B6. At the same time, the acetic acid and lactic acid in the metabolites of bifidobacteria can acidify the intestines and make the body intake of magnesium ions. Increased solubility and absorption rate. A variety of immune factors decomposed by stachyose in the colon can also improve the resistance of diabetic patients [10].

3.9. Relieve hemorrhoids, prostate disease, improve dermatitis, acne symptoms

Stachyose can directly reach the area where hemorrhoids are formed, by proliferating bifidobacteria and decomposing toxins to regulate constipation and diarrhea, and relieve the stimulation of hemorrhoids. At the same time, stachyose can also reduce the decomposition of elastin in blood vessels, improve blood vessel elasticity and prevent The formation of varicose veins fundamentally improves hemorrhoids. The place where stachyose works is in the colon. The colon is closer to the prostate, and the lipid layer between them is thin. Mannatriose and melibiose, which are decomposed by stachyose, can quickly diffuse into the prostate. , It can quickly improve the immunity of the prostate and restore normal function.

4. Stachyose and human immune regulation

The human body’s immune system can resist microbial infections, treat wounds, and kill cancer cells. A good immune system will neither overreact nor underreact. When its function is working well, white blood cells and immune bodies in the right quantity and form will work together to deal with the invaders and wipe them out in one fell swoop. Proper immunity The response allows us to have health.

4.1. The immunomodulatory effect of stachyose on bifidobacteria and their surface molecules

Stachyose can significantly increase the number of bifidobacteria in the human body. The amount of bifidobacteria is one of the important factors of host immunity. The bifidobacteria colonized in the intestines have similar antigen-stimulating effects, which are against many potential pathogens and saprophytes such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentery , Proteobacteria, etc. have good resistance [11]. The proliferating bifidobacteria also have an activating effect on the mononuclear phagocyte system[12]. For example, using bifidobacteria and their surface components as biological responsive agents to enhance the host’s immune surveillance function through oral or non-gastrointestinal routes, which can enhance various The production of cytokines and antibodies improves the activity of NK and macrophages, improves local or systemic defense functions, and exerts self-regulation, anti-infection and anti-tumor effects. According to research reports by Lan Jinggang of Chongqing Medical University and others, the whole Bifidobacterium bifidum, lipoteichoic acid, and cell wall peptidoglycan can enhance the activity of mouse spleen NK and LAK cells to kill tumor target cells [13]. Research reports by Kang Bai of Dalian Medical University pointed out that bifidobacteria can exert anti-tumor effects by regulating the body’s immune system. It can be seen that using bifidobacteria as an immunomodulator can not only improve the immunity of the host, but also prevent and treat a series of intractable diseases such as internal rheumatism, ankylosing osteomyelitis and even cancer.

4.2. Decompose immune factors and enhance the body’s immunity

Stachyose not only achieves the function of improving immunity by proliferating bifidobacteria, stachyose can be decomposed by bifidobacteria to produce multiple immune function substances that enhance human immunity, such as mannotriose and raffinose , Galactose, melibiose, etc.

Beneficial bacteria in the intestines maintain a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with the human body. After using stachyose, it can help protect the human body against harmful invaders. Invader bacteria are usually unable to survive due to limited space and insufficient nutrition.

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